One of the most important elements of a lawsuit that you should be aware of, is the application of a statute of limitations to your claim. Statutes of limitations are, as the name suggests, the limitations applied to causes of action, i.e., the right to sue on some grievance. They vary in length, and once they "run," or have expired, they work as an absolute ban on filing a lawsuit.
For federal workers there are additional rules that they must comply with when suing the federal government for a Title VII discrimination claim. A worker is required to file an administrative action first with their agency or the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) before they attempt to sue in a federal court.